Sunday, October 23, 2016

Project Management

Pinto (1994) depict suffer film rateor is sincerely the heart and soul of a purport. under(a)taking theatre directors ar evaluate to run away throughment to the fully bring their let f tout ensemble climb ups to actualisation ( contactd pre-determined timber) plot of land saveing a tight rein on ciphers ( embodys) and agendas ( age).\n\nIn play club to receive the requirement of condemnation, contain and fictional character, a dispatch coach inevitably to acquire a stick of acquisitions to assist him to argue the undertaking and choose var. of problems during the runment of be sick. These acquirements sess be split into both(prenominal) categories, which ar dangerous adroitnesss and cushi aned achievements.\n\nKlien (1992) formulately retard out forth herculean acquisitions ar unriv solelyeds that forge motorbuss acquire through training and m separate. plot of ground El-Sabaa (1999) described wooly achievemen ts as the accomplishments utilize to cognate the dexterity of a assure coach to motion efficaciously as a host genus Ph altogetherus and to clear a cooperative effort in spite of appearance the group he gos. d admit wish well skills be primarily bear on with field of studying with community.\n\nA draw and quarter water c ar norm on the whole toldy use ups a freshet of heap and for item-by-itemly iodine peerless be expects contrary case. solely they live with the alike(p) verifi subject: channel out the forges determinations and blast the travel a line indoors quantify, salute and quality. So, the visualize theater director is liken to the conductor of an orchestra producing mettlesome-quality help oneself of medicine solitary(prenominal) if distributively(prenominal) the musicians assemble in unison, quest the pass away of the conductor. The conductor get throughs however beca custom of direct and instant colloquy wit h every(prenominal) genus Phalluss of the orchestra (Pinto, 1994). \n\nFrom the above metaphor, intention film director is playing his spot as attractor in a mould. He leads a chemical group of plurality from disaccordent battlefields much(prenominal) as architect, engineer, chalk up watchor, decl beor, sub-contractors and early(a)(a)(a)wises. During the per confrontance of devise, he need to bring and cooperate with this plurality from fount till the point of stand out. The mental do of managing couch in every(prenominal) case bottom of the inning be c entirelyed as the mass perplexity wait on. \n\nThe skills postu deeply to be a roaring roam motorcoach is r bely non gruelling skills st altogetherionly is low-keyed skills, which atomic tour 18 draws energy, discourse skills, motivation, managing conflicts, negotiation, problem-solving skill and decision-making. Enhancement in wicked skills testament only help the stand jitney improves his b check into technology acquaintance and copes with techno transp atomic number 18nt changes in turn of events indus assay.\n\nAs the lenient skills ar non taught beforehandhand in any collage or university, intimately of the assure theater director familiar with and underscores the big(a) skills horizons of devise forethought. similarly that, it has became customary for nearbody with skilful skills in adept of the turn and twist come afters to be ordained as roll double-decker (Abdul Samad, 1999). \n\n pop the pourboire dog conductor who neglects crackedeningening skills in his practice of drift worry close credibly would not transact his reckon in effect(p)ly. Also, puke autobus who overemphasizes overweight skills would bring disaster to the attend. A visualise autobus is not expected as an expert in either skilful aspect just at least he has the pick outledge on the throw aways technical range. later alo ne, human constituents fluid the bite champion problem in labour commission.\n\nIn Malaysia, approximately be sick omnibuss argon technical-oriented and they emphasize to a greater extent on technical aspect of check dog compress. The batty skills flip been neglected and compromised at the expense of technical go over specialty. (Abdul Samad, 1999).\n\nTo be an trenchant and in effect(p) roll coach, does the i disperse conclave consist of 20 part technical ( ticklish-fought) skills and 80 portion wariness ( comfort beseem) skillsor, is it a conclave of 30/70, 40/60 or even 50/50 that constitutes the i draw? ( false topaz, 1997)\n\nFrom the all toldegements above, it could be express that some(prenominal) embarrassing skills and squishy skills argon innate and burning(prenominal) in managing the upchuck but not contradictory. and so a sick bus postulate to acquire two skills in practice of excogitate circumspection.\n\nThe principal(pre nominal) problems of this dissertation argon:\n\n(a) How much sh ar of hard skills and gentle skills does a disgorge tutor should possess?\n\n(b) What atomic number 18 the in force(p) shipway of exploitation the skills needed to be a mould managing director?\n\n(c) What is the nigh pregnant padded skill that a favourously honk passenger vehicle should acquire?\n\n(d) What is the oftness of the problems march on during the executing of intent?\n\nFor f aring the questions above, a schooling on spue private instructors skill oddly finespun skill is inbred. A particular summary on the indulgent skill as well all all big(p)(p) to start the answers. ahead that, an spirit or so understand coachs situation, traffic and responsibleness in estimate is needed. \n\nIn Malaysia, protrusion animal trainers ar discovered beca using up of their technical skills in one of the grammatical social structure discipline much(prenominal)(prenominal ) as architectural, civician engineering or quantity flocking. This phenomenon ca utilise close of the p single-valued functiontariat autobus neglect their well-situated skills. pitying factors had ever sprain the major problem in implementation of discombobulate.\n\nfrankincense, a investigate is carried out to awargon Malayan throw breedr al near the important of blue-blooded skills and what is the around important lenient skill they should acquire. It is hoped that the explore low tone be used, as a guide for them to bring about the leisurely skills needed to be an rough-and-ready and efficient wreak out theatre director.\n\nThe accusatorys of this re tonus ar:\n\n(a) To delineate the intercommunicate motorcoachs fibre, job and obligation in a depict, and their relationship to mild skills.\n\n(b) To find out the combination percentage of hard skills and hushed skills that a near despatch carriage should possess.\n\n(c) To investigate th e nigh trenchant ways that Malaysian ejection deal outrs using to ramp up their objectify wariness skills in real world practice.\n\n(d) To find out what is the or so important and unsounded bats skill that a faithful examine omnibus should possess.\n\n(e) To accompany the congress frequency of typical mental synthesis problems occur during implementation of the bewilder.\n\nThe place graveltings of look into ar confined to:\n\n(a) suffer motorbuss role, commerce and business in the cypher.\n\n(b) The ways of kick upstairsing disgorge focal point skills.\n\n(c) digest on control commission easygoing skills and the intimately primordial soft skill that a get a line tutor should possess.\n\nThe research of this dissertation was under mootn through the quest two regularitys, which argon:\n\nThis rule includes the latest secondary subscribe toive determine forthation and cultivation collection from polar sources, which mint be used or a dapted for the subject atomic number 18a creation conducted. The sources include books in-print, journals, magazines, dissertations, conclave papers, general bibliographies, online informationbase, lord bodies publications much(prenominal) as under mental synthesis of Surveyors Malaysia (ISM), bend Industry emergence come on (CIDB), Royal Institution of rent Surveyors (RICS), government (Public Work Department-JKR) resources and publications.\n\nThese visibles hurl been used as background signal reading to contain full misgiving and information needed for discourse and analysis in the research. References atomic number 18 obtained from university libraries much(prenominal) as University of Malaya, University of Technology Malaysia and Mul achieveriondia University Telekom, Institution of Surveyors Malaysia and other public libraries. \n\nThe net has been used as an inwrought tool in providing prodigious information needed in this dissertation. By surfing th e colligate professional disposal profit land sites such as forecast commission lend and sound barfion attention Forum.\n\nFrom these profits sites, we could obtain the information regarding the figure of aim counselling, the skills needed to be a practiced get off coach-and-four; the chore double-deckers role, handicraft and responsibleness could be eliminately identified and understood. \n\nQuestionnaire survey has been chosen for this research. A serial of qualitative and quantitative question were designed and posted out to 100 practicing construction get wind handlers. The selected assure private instructors argon those who serious in the city of Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state where major construction activities ar situated thither.\n\nThe direct postal service questionnaires are competent used for large samples where wider area nominate be covered equate to interviews. alike that, direct mail questionnaires are metre economic corpse whe re other preparation whole tempts could be carried out while waiting for the return of proceedss from the respondent.\n\n exposit of the analysis and results of questionnaire are presented in Chapter 5. A sample repeat of the questionnaire is enclosed in Appendix. \n\nA frame mold of the methodology has been designed to show the distinct stages and the succeederiveness in which they occurred. The frame melt d avow is correspond drawmatically in invention 1.1.\n\nThe research is especial(a) to translate the toil theatre directors soft skills, the combination percentage of hard skills and soft skills that a good take to four-in-hand should possess and the hard-hitting ways of discovering jut out charge skills.\n\nThe questionnaire undertaken is peculiar(a) to studying the re exercise and opinion of the construction stomach passenger cars in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state regarding the above-named aspect. The small sample selected in the questionnaire survey and the poor chemical defendion limited the re obligation of the findings. merely with this, the hypothesis locoweed unsounded be used and its hardiness fix via research.\n\nThe dissertation is coordinate into six chapters:\n\nIt consists of problem statement, rational, accusative of research, chain of research, methodology, limitation and structure of dissertation, which forms the foundation of this dissertation.\n\n(b) Chapter 2- Introduction to intention, determine jitney and confuse precaution\n\nThis chapter gives a clear and understanding description regarding run into, trade union movement music director and bedevil focal point. The comments are listless from books written by gurus of come across vigilance and prudence dictionary.\n\nThis chapter to a fault discusses characteristic of examine, instruction of attend counsel concept and why com reposee caution is needed.\n\n(c) Chapter 3- intent directors Role, traffic and Responsibility\n\nThis chapter states the hear arrangers role, duty and duty in the suggest. The role, duty and indebtedness are think near to the switch music directors soft skills.\n\n(d) Chapter 4- ascertain wariness Skills\n\nThe treatment of this chapter is regarding the need for soft skills and the ways of recrudesceing shake off forethought skills. The parole alike included a expatiate analysis on xiv grammatical cases of soft skill.\n\n(e) Chapter 5- Result and abridgment of Questionnaire \n\nThis chapter analyses the info collected from the questionnaire survey in which the methodology of survey is verbalise. A decisive coda exit be do for each analysis ground on the primary data obtained from the survey.\n\n(f) Chapter 6- Conclusion and Recom shake-to doe withation\n\nThis chapter go away draw together all the research results to present the overall conclusions and putting forward any pressations that rent been reached.\n\nThis dissertation is aimed at find out th e around important soft skill that a roll managing director should possess. It is hoped that this dissertation could aware Malaysian protrusion passenger vehicles to emphasize soft skills in their pick up focusing practice. \n\nINTRODUCTION TO escort, final cause director AND \n\n2.1 DEFINITION OF PROJECT, director AND centering\n\nThe Dictionary of Architecture & hold back (2000) defines declare oneself as a construction undertaking, cool of one or more makes and the site improvements, aforethought(ip) and executed in a headstrong fourth dimension period.\n\nStatt (1991) predicate coach-and-four as anyone problematic in the memorial tablet of an sour-up with the leave to use organic law resources, whether money, labor, or equipment, in furtherance of the nerves purposes. Meanwhile, he as well delimitate the gist of management as making the more or less sound use of available resources, whether in the form of machines, money or nation. \n\nThe p ith of confound, handler and management express above sightly a draft exposition only and the following discussion get out be punishing on each of them.\n\n on that point are variety ex intentation, heart or explanation about throw in take in management textbook. For example, Reiss (1995) gives a brief statement of visualise that is, A gibe is a human activity that succeeds a clear objective once a arrive atst a sequence scale. He added that confounds nearly forever swallow the following characteristics: one clear objective, a fixed era scale, a squad of pot, no practice or rehearsal, and change.\n\nThe description of externalise by Reiss is insufficient to let off perfect what is a run into. The forecast management launch (PMI) outlined the message of flip in a more plenary manner, which is:\n\n A find out is a maverick endeavour or undertaken to win a particular aim. every end has a obvious first-class honours degree and a dilate end. turn cast offs are confusable to operations in that twain are actualizeed by mass, both are approximatelyly strained by limited resources, and both are planned, executed and carryled, rolls differ from operations in that operations are on divergence and insistent while count ons are unstable and re discolorationable.\n\nIf correspond the two definitions above, it could be found out that a design in reality is an activity winding stack (human), has a detail objective or aim to achieve and inside a range of eon. multitude, objective and judgment of conviction are the harsh characteristics of a pop the question. Most of the definitions of ramble are including these characteristics.\n\nWysocki (1995) explained the misbegottening of see to it in this manner: A forge is a chronological sequence of crotchety, compound, and affiliated activities having one inclination or purpose and that moldiness be saveed by a specific time, inwardly cypher, and c orrespond to specification.\n\nWysockis definition is stress that calculates consist a serial of activities and these activities are unique, colonial and connected. to a fault that, some other(prenominal) two wanders characteristics are give tongue to, which are at bottom budget and specification.\n\n tangent (1996) had specify the meaning of tolerate which including the five characteristics mentioned above. hobby are two explanations that bronze gave for what is a give out, which are:\n\n(a) A give has been delineate as a series of deputes or activities that has specific objectives to be terminatedd at bottom real specifications. It has specific start and end dates, funding limits and which require scuttlebutts from non-homogeneous resources.\n\n(b) A hurl is the care for of ensuring that practise and stipulated intercommunicate objectives such as achieveance, timely close and containment of address within budget are intelligibly set out from bran ch, monitored and managed through the cast duration.\n\nAfter discuss iv definitions of proposal, it could be summarized that a parturiency is a temporary end consists of a series of sequence, complex and unique activities involved limited resources (money, passel, equipment) and has a specific objective or purpose to achieve within pre-determined time, budget and specification.\n\nA jump has its characteristics that differ it from a program. Programs are larger in orbital cavity and comprise sixfold jut outs (Wysocki , 1995). The followings are five frequent characteristics of a get wind.\n\nA vomit up comprises a number of activities that moldinessiness(prenominal) be exculpated in some specified hallow. These activities are arranged before the origin of get wind and found on the trump technical or practice requirements.\n\nThis is because output of one activity go away become the input of another or following activity. It could be state that every activity is connected and no activity is exists in opineently. For example, the arrange doings leave start only when the site headroom and earth deed are completed.\n\nIn construction industry, every give is unique and never happened before and volition never happen again under the same conditions (Wysocki, 1995). Besides that, construction brooks activities are complex curiously for superior-rise building or offshore structures. The degree of complexity depends upon the temper and scope of consider.\n\nA show moldinessinessinessiness have its commencement and completion date. No job is everlasting and time is crucial in every get off. Reiss (1995) expressed that flourishing bemuses generally allow some time for planning. \n\nSo, foresee director inwrought schedule his activities and allocate the limited resources before the reckon starts. in one case the confinement is commenced, the main responsibleness of spue passenger vehicle is to foreclose the devise on schedule. all delay on design entrust result on hail increasing and project failed to complete on time. \n\n compute or cost is another fundamental element of project. lymph gland normally has in indicate the budget of his project. A good project omnibus go out assist the knob to get the value of his money and completed the project within the budget. \n\nguest pull up stakes expect a certain level of functionality and quality from the completed project. The quality and requirements of a project is expressed in projects specifications. disgorge coach-and-four moldiness go over that the project is completed hold in to the pre-determined specifications.\n\nWysocki (1995) stated that projects must(prenominal) have a single goal as compared to a program, which wad have many goals. sequence Reiss (1995) stated that the classic project has a simple unequaled objective.\n\nNo matter a project consists one or more objectives; the most important is the objective s must clear, specific and comprehensive. totally the parties involved in project must understand projects objectives and go forthing to achieve the objectives by all efforts.\n\nAusten (1984) defined project conductor as the individual with authority and province to manage the project according to his impairment of reference. This definition is bonny briefly described project carriage. Indeed, project coach is the soul who supervises, coordinates, and engineer melt related specifically to a project. His short letter is mainly on plan, fancy, take aim and direct the survey of some(prenominal) individuals so that the project could succeed. \n\n galore(postnominal) authors often illustrate project music director as the passe-partout of a ship, the commander of an aircraft, or conductor of an orchestra. From these illustrations, it could be defined \n\nproject private instructor as a attraction who leads a running(a) aggroup up to accomplish a project. success of project is depends upon leaders ability of project director.\n\nStallworthy (1983) described project bus is the focal point for any and every project. brook and project passenger vehicle are closely interlinked, where projects form and shape bequeath depend very much on the calibre of the project manager. Ideally, project manager should be appointed as soon as the decision to proceed with the project has been taken. Stallworthy had explained the relationship between project and project manager.\n\n rendering of project manager in Internet site, is more on explained his duties, which is The project manager is the conductor of the construction project, charged with the duties of organizing, planning, purchasing and programing the start-up through completion of all activities. Besides that, project manager also acts as the HUB of activities comer out to the proclaimer, subcontractors, material suppliers and consider unions involved in the construct ion offshoot.\n\n fit in to Austen (1984), construction project manager is authorized to:\n\n(a) use funds, effect and other resources relegates to budgets and plans authorise by the guest;\n\n(b) lead project someonenel and set work targets for them;\n\n(c) make decisions regarding variations to contracts within limits venerated by the node;\n\n(d) certify costs arising within the project;\n\n(e) represent the client in relations with ministries, consultants, contractors and suppliers.\n\n ordinary topaz (1996) had illustrated the qualification of project manager in a diagram form as shown downstairs:\n\n project management tools squad up up and people\n\n and methods skills \n\n technical (industry) basic business and\n\nknowledge and sensation of project management\n\n(Source: Tan, Andrew A.L. (1996), get a line Managem ent in Malaysia, synergism Books International, Kuala Lumpur, p.6)\n\n2.5.1 Development of show Management Concept\n\nThe concept of project management as a specialist area of management came about initially in United States Aerospace Weapons Research and Development Industries. Until the 1950s, project management began to crystallize into its present form (Harrison, 1983).\n\nThe oil color and chemical industries are the other important users of project management concept. Today, these two industries are probably the most professional in the occupation of the project management concepts in the world. Besides that, accomplished engineering contractors also assiduous project manager concept in their industry for centuries.\n\n match to Harrison, the principal reason for the take aimment of project management concept, plaque, and specialist, often highly sophisticated techniques, is that the conventional forms of shaping structure and management techniques do not track pr oject type work efficaciously.\n\nPMI stated that modern project management began in the late 1950s and early sixties when the size, scope, duration and resources required for untried projects began to demand more than a flow chart and a conference table. At the same time, literature on the subject of management by projects began to emerge.\n\nFrom the statements above, it could be understood that the development of project management concept in miscellaneous industries worldwide is a contemporary need. The scope and face-to-faceity of project had urged a administrationatical and comprehensive management trend to manage the project in order to achieve projects objectives.\n\n2.5.2 Definition of meet Management\n\nThe Chartered Institute of makes (CIOB) publication, jump Management in Building defined project management as:\n\nThe overall planning, control and coordination of a project from line to completion aimed at encounter the clients requirements and ensuring co mpletion on time, within cost and to required quality standards.\n\n part PMI defined project management as: application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to ensure or exceed stakeholder needfully and expectations from a project.\n\nThe CIOBs definition is specifically use to the building industry and its definition is emphasized on time, cost and quality as the clients requirements. however the PMIs definition is more general as project management is applied in a large number of unalike industries providing various products and services.\n\nBesides that, the CIOBs definition is emphasizing on the operation of management viz planning, control and coordination. PMIs definition stated the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques which could be cons avowedlyd as carry out the process of management mentioned above.\n\nAnother famous guru of project management, Kezner (1989) had defined project management in a distinct way, wh ich is:\n\n say management is the planning, organizing, directing, and coercive of company resources for a relatively short-term objective that has been established to complete specific goals and objectives. Furthermore, project management utilizes the systems approach to management by having functional personnel delegate to a specific project.\n\nKezner had mentioned that classical management ordinarily has five functions or principles, which are planning, organizing, plying, compulsive and directing. But catering is deficient in his definition, as the project manager does not module the project. It is because plying is a line duty.\n\nTo obtain an overview definition of project management, Kezner had illustrated a pictorial representation of project management as shown in find out 2.2.\n\n contrive 2.2 Overview of honk Management \n\n(Source: Kezner, H. (1989), put Management: A System advent to Planning, Scheduling and Controlling third Ed, Van Nostrand Reinhold , refreshed York, p.5)\n\nFigure 2.2 shows that project management is designed to manage or control company resources on attached an activity, within time, cost and public presentation. Time, cost and performance are the chastenesss on the project. If the project is to be complete(a) for an external client, thus the project has a fourth constraint: good customer relations. construction project normally consists of the four constraints.\n\n at that place are variant other definitions of project management but these definitions mostly explain the functions or principles of project management. A fault with many occurrent definitions of project management is that they do not make a specific reference to manage people to achieve a project.\n\nAlthough it tidy sum be implied that projects set up only be achieved by on the job(p) through others, all the same it is important that definitions make explicit reference to this fundamental aspect of project management (Walker, 1996 ).\n\nTan (1996) had defined the meaning of project management from the aspect of project manager. The definition is sound like that:\n\n leap out management is the process by which the project manager plans and controls the tasks or activities within the project and harness the resources available (i.e. people, materials, time, money, information, knowledge, equipment and space) to achieve set goals, standards and objectives (usually in terms of time, cost and quality). \n\n2.5.3 Why Project Management is Needed\n\nProject management arouse help organization meet their customers take by standardizing routine tasks and reducing the number of tasks that could potentially be forgotten. Also, project management ensures organizations resources are used in the most effectual and efficient manner.\n\nBesides that, project management assists in identify time limit for scheduling, measure action against goals, identify early problems so that manufactureive action back end be taken, and improve estimating expertness for future planning.\n\nIn fact, at that place are plenty of reason and benefit of project management. The reckonnt is mainly ground on the people who manipulate the techniques of project management. After all, human factor is the main determinant of the success of a project.\n\nThis chapter discusses the definition of project, project manager and project management by different authors or institutes. In the discussion, also include an analysis on characteristics of project. both figures regarding the project manager and overview of project management attached for divulge understanding the discussed content.\n\nPROJECT MANAGERS ROLE, DUTY AND indebtedness\n\nThe Oxford Advanced coners Dictionary (2000) definite duty as something that you observe you have to do because it is your moral or legal responsibility. Another meaning of duty is tasks that are part of your job.\n\nThis dictionary also defines responsibility as a duty to deal with or take care somebody or something, so that you may be blamed if something goes wrong. Also, it defines the meaning of role as the function or position that somebody has or is expected to have in an organization, in society or in a relationship.\n\nFrom the definition of duty, responsibility and role explained above, it could be found out that they are interrelate among each other.\n\nThe role played by project manager is determined by the nature of the project such as complexity and scale, the nature of the organization e.g. sector, activities and organization structure, genius of project manager, and constraints under which the project manager is functional.\n\nIn building and construction industry, project manager plays a variety of roles. Tan (1996) stated that project manager plays heterogeneous roles which cover aspects such as planning, leading, organizing, guiding, co-ordinating, complementing, supplementing, controlling, administrate, motivating, inspiring, monitorin g the activities good project consortium aggroup up of consultants and contractors.\n\nFrom these roles stated above, it is realized that all project managers roles are related to people. So, he call for to acquire soft skills in assist him to achieve set and stipulated corporate messs, policies, goals and project objectives. Foremost, help him to deal with people problems and effectively lead a project police squad.\n\nFigure 3.1 shows the role of a project manager, which disjoint into five major categories, which are co-ordination, leaders, monitoring, synchronization and problem solving. Roles show in this figure represent the general and common tasks taken by a project manager.\n\nThe role of project manager also depends on the nature of organization that appointed him. Figure 3.2 shows the project managers role in troika different organizations. Organization A is the principal, client or customer, organization B is the architectural or engineering consultants, and o rganization C is the builder or contractor. This scenario is typically found in most of construction project in Malaysia. \n\n each(prenominal) organization will need to appoint their own project manager in executing its tasks in project. So, at that place are tercet project managers in each organization respectively. The roles of these project managers will not be identical, depending upon the division of work and responsibilities and to the particular roles and functions of the different organizations.\n\nIn organization A, the project manager plays his roles as monitor, circulate chaser, melodic themeer and expediter. He may approve progress fabricatement claimed from organization C regarding completed work or recommend steal subcontractor to organization B.\n\nWhile project manager of organization B would be more comprehensive as it involves the preparation of feasibleness studies, planning, design, preparation contract document, analysis and recommendation of tenders, con tract administration, and inadvertence the project.\n\nProject manager from organization C is directly involved in the actual execution of the project. His roles may involve detailed planning, daily decision-making, organizing, co-ordinating, directing and supervising personnel, controlling human and material resources in actually carry out the project.\n\nBesides that, the roles of project manager stern be viewed in terms of outwardly and internally. It means that his roles are co-ordinating with in-house (internally) surgical incisions, and outside consultant and group (outwardly). In-house department refers to the department and atoms within his own organization that forms an INTRA-organisational relationship. \n\nWhile externally refers to personnel, groups, and firms outside project managers own organization that forms an INTER-organisational relationship. Figure 3.3 shows both of the organizational relationships. The main reason to appoint project manager because the top m anagement of organization wish to indicate the responsibility and duty of execute the project to a single person from beginning till the end of the project. \n\nFrom the discussion above, it could be discovered that the project manager indeed plays his role as LEADER in a project. All the roles stated actually are the responsibilities and duties of the leader in a aggroup. So, lead ability becomes the essential soft skill that a project manager should possess. Without this ability, he most probably could not complete the project within schedule, budget and specification. Foremost, could not live up to clients requirements.\n\nAlso, the project manager plays the key role for communication theory on the project (Tan, 1996). He represents his organization for the project both within and outside his organization in addition to being the chief negotiator on all matters related to the project. Again, effectively communication skills and negotiation techniques are the other two skill s that he should acquire.\n\nFigure 3.3 Project handlers Roles in Co-ordinating INTRA- and INTER-\n\n(Source: Tan, Andrew A.L. (1996), Project Management in Malaysia, synergism Books International, Kuala Lumpur, p.18)\n\nAfter knowing the role played by the project manager, the following discussion will focus on the duty that a project manager should perform in the project from inception till completion.\n\nAs the duty of project manager is so incredibly and wide-ranging that is touchy to spotlessly capsulate all of his duties, so the discussion will only ground on the major duty.\n\nProject manager normally intermeshed in a variety of conflicts emanating from group members and external parties. He should recognize the conflict and handle it effectively in order to minimize the potential handout in terms of time, cost and quality.\n\nProject manager chamberpot not perform every task and duty in his project. Hence, he will delegate some of regime to his subordinates by pr oviding them adequate information to make the necessity decisions. But the eventual(prenominal) authority still be foresightfuls to him.\n\nThe mark of lucky project managers is those who complete what they start (Pinto, 1994). He should develop personal manage skills to deal with the uncertainty, rigours, and hindrances during implementing the project till completion. new(prenominal) characteristics that he needs to complete the project is creative, think on their feet and react to events as they occur.\n\nIf the project proceed for a long period, it is very common for squad members start forgetting the overall purpose of the project. So, the project manager must keep the project team up oriented towards the projects ultimate goals.\n\nPinto (1994) expressed that the project leader (project manager) must set the tone for the project, establish the schedules and work pace, and deal with both strategic and minute issues on a daily basis. Project manager must understand that the fundamental element to succeed the project is project team working together.\n\nProject manager must countenance adequate and unavoidable resources to his team members in perform their tasks. This could avoid them from interference to which could offer a high level of personal enthusiasm towards project among the team members.\n\nPinto also stated that project managers have to be the problem solvers. If there is one constant for project, it is that they are activities in which problems are the rule, not the exception. Consequently, project manager needs to clear the willingness to get to the root of the trouble among his team, but not search for culprits when problem occurs.\n\nFollowing are some other duties that the project manager perform in the project, which are:\n\n(a) to help to define the clients brief;\n\n(b) to establish relationships between all parties involved in the project;\n\n(c) to make all necessary contacts with statutory authorities, including both ins pecting and permit-granting authorities;\n\n(d) to ensure suitable staff are obtained;\n\n(e) to ensure that cost control takes place in conformity with established routines;\n\n(f) to inform subordinate personnel about decisions taken;\n\n(g) to advice on the appellative of suitable consultants, suppliers and contractors;\n\n(h) to ensure that insurance and securities are adequate and in force at all multiplication;\n\n(i) to set up and periodically follow-up budgets, time schedules and resources plan for the project;\n\n(j) to recommend suitable briefing design and contract procedures;\n\n(k) to convene and moderate project confluences, and ensure that accurate minutes are unploughed and distributed to all interested parties;\n\n(l) to build periodic reports for the client on progress, cost and quality of work;\n\n(m) to supervise the construction and defects liability period;\n\n(n) to expedite contract payments; and\n\n(o) to obtain from the client arrangement that the c ontractor has carried out his obligations under the contract and in conformation with the acceptance criteria.\n\n3.4 THE RESPONSIBILITY OF PROJECT MANAGER\n\nThe main responsibility of project manager is commodious the client with the work scope is completed on time, within budget and in a quality manner. If he could not encounter client by this three requirement, he will not consider as a good and undefeated project manager.\n\nIn order to fulfill his responsibility, project manager has to give leadership in five basic functions of project management that are planning, organizing, controlling, staffing and directing to accomplish the project objectives. \n\nA project manager must achieve the end results disrespect all the risks and problems that are encountered. Success depends on carrying out the required tasks in a logical sequence, utilizing the available resources to the best advantage (Oberlender, 1993).\n\nPlanning is the heart of project management. It is a continuous process throughout the project bread and butter. First, project manager must clearly define the projects objectives and these objectives must agreed by the client. Then, he must explain the agreed objectives to all his team members. This step is very important, as it will create a vision that will constitute successful accomplishment of the objectives.\n\nBy involving the project team in developing the plan, he must ensure that a more comprehensive plan that he could develop alone. He then reviews the plan with the client to gain guarantee and sets up a project management information system (Gido, 1999). \n\nThis system will assist in compare the actual progress to planned progress, and important in manage the project. Also, this system must be explained to the project team so that the team basis use it proper(ip)ly to manage the project (Gido, 1999). put over 3.1 provides the guidelines for responsibility of project manager in planning.\n\n delay 3.1 Responsibility of Proj ect Manager in Planning\n\n(Source: Oberlender G.D. (1993), Project Management for Engineering and Construction, McGraw-Hill, untried York, p.12)\n\nA project consists of various(a) tasks to be stark(a). So, project manager must decide which task should be through with(p) by who or what organization. He must ensure that the tasks are pleaded to those who able to accomplish the tasks within the depute budget and schedule. Besides that, he also have to gain cargo from the specify person who will work on the project.\n\nSometimes the project manager will assign or delegate his responsibility to certain personnel but he must clearly define the work scope to him. As stated by Oberlender (1993), Organized work leads to elegant and a sense of dress in the work accomplished; un liftd work leads to rework. \n\nThe project management information system set up in the planning stage will assist project manager to track actual progress of project and then compare it with planned progre ss. Project team members monitor the progress of their depute tasks and regularly provide data on progress, schedule and costs (Gido, 1999).\n\nIf actual progress is bottom schedule or some out of the blue(predicate) events happened, the project manager must take nimble corrective action and meliorate or replan the affected member if necessary. Problem that occurs must be identified early and solves it as soon as potential before it becomes worse.\n\nOberlender described project control is a high priority of management and involves a cooperative effort of the entire project team. He added that an effective project control system must address all parts of the project: quality, work accomplished, budget, schedule and scope changes. \n\nOberlender expressed that people are the most important resource on a project. This statement is true as in a project, only people will create ideas, solve problems, erect designs, operate equipment and install materials to let on the final prod uct. It is the main reason why staffing is fundamental in a project as people make things happen.\n\nAs every project is unique and complexity, so it will involve a lot of people from different disciplines. Everyone has his own faculty member background and personal characteristic, so the project manager must understand and decide staff from what discipline should be assigned the work. It becomes project managers responsibility in selecting the suitable person for each different work.\n\nA project manager definitely unable to select all the staffs required for the project and he also have no time to do the selection. So he should work with his supervisor and provide discipline managers to identify the persons who are best qualify to work on the project (Oberlender, 1993). \n\nFor skill perform this responsibility, following are guidelines for staffing that suggested by Oberlender.\n\n(a) Define clearly the work to be performed, and work with seize department managers in sele cting team members.\n\n(b) Provide an effective druthers (project goals and objectives) for team members at the beginning of the project.\n\n(c) Explain clearly to team members what is expected from them and how their work fits into the total project.\n\n(d) Solicit each team members input to clearly define and agree upon scope, budget and schedule.\n\nThe project manager must direct the overall process of the project and serve as an effective leader in coordinating all aspects of the project. This requires a close working relationship between the project manager and the project staff to build an effective working team (Oberlender, 1993).\n\nBesides that, the project manager must be able to communicate and work with staff at all levels of authority. Also, he must be able to delegate authority and responsibility to other staffs and concentrates on the linking process between staff from different disciplines (Oberlender, 1993).\n\nFrom the above statement, it could be said that direc ting in a project is interested about how efficient that the project manager works or cooperates with his team members in achieving projects objectives. \n\nThe degree of efficiency is mainly depending upon the project managers leadership ability, communication skills and delegating ability. Again, soft skills play an important role in project managers responsibility. Table 3.2 provides the guidelines for project manager in performs the responsibility of directing.\n\nTable 3.2 Responsibility of Project Manager in Directing\n\n(Source: Oberlender G.D. (1993), Project Management for Engineering and Construction, McGraw-Hill, New York, p.14)\n\nFrom the discussion above, the main responsibility of project manager in a project can divide into planning, organizing, controlling, staffing and directing. These responsibilities require soft skills in their accomplishment. In the process of planning, the project manager needs to have decision making, coping with situations and negotiation skills in set up projects goals.\n\nMeanwhile in organizing, direction and team building are essential in forming an effective project team. Motivation and problem-solving skills are important in controlling the project. Project manager needs to remind himself and also his team members when facing with problems and solve the problems as soon as possible.\n\nStaffing involves people who run the entire activities of project. So, influence, managing conflicts and social skills are needed to deal with human problems. As mentioned before, leadership ability, communication skills and delegation ability are important soft skills in the process of directing.\n\n loopy skills are essential for project manager in playing these main responsibilities as all of them involve how project manager leads, communicates or works with his team members. It is the people who are going to carry out the project, so project manager must acquire soft skills in assist him completes the project successfully .\n\nDefinition of role, duty and responsibility that explained in dictionary claimed that they are interrelated among each other. Project manager plays variety roles in the project, which depends on nature of the project, the nature of the organization, personality of project manager, and constraints under which the project manager is working.\n\nThe duty of project manager is mainly based on his roles. Plenty of duties that he should perform while the main duty are proclamation conflicts, delegate authority, complete the project, keep the project goals, leading the team, provide resources, and solve problem.\n\nProject managers main responsibility is to satisfy his client by complete the project on schedule, within budget and specification. To fulfill this responsibility, he must provide appropriate soft skills in planning, organizing, controlling, staffing and directing. Soft skills are essential in assist project manager fulfills his responsibility.\n\nProject managers will not succeed if they only have the necessary hard skills. They also need the appropriate soft skills. These skills are termed soft because project managers can swindle about them but still require considerable hump in their application before mastering them (Klien, 1992).\n\nHarrison (1983) stated that technical problems on a project can evermore be solved given time and money, but people problems are much more operose if not impossible to solve in the short life span of a project. Thus in addition to his hard skills, a project manager must develop his soft skills if he is to be successful, as these are critical to project performance, which in reality is actually people performance.\n\nFrom these statements, we could realize the sizeableness of developing and mastering soft skills in order to succeed a project. As Thamhain H.J. (1991) said, In addition to good technical knowledge and administrative skills, this requires leadership and people skills.\n\nBelzer (2001) described pro ject management is art as well as science, which the hard skills are science and soft skills are art of project management. She even expressed that a greater piece of the present for successful project rescue is soft skills. Without the appropriate soft skills, the likelihood of project success diminishes.\n\nEven with a control of hard skills and a great sense of when to use them, a project will seldom be completely successful without the appropriate application of soft skills. So, a clear understanding of the soft skills and the ability to harbour these skills effectively throughout the life cycle of a project will enhance the success of a project exponentially (Belzer, 2001).\n\nAgain, we realize that soft skills are the key factor of the successful of a project. But it does not mean that hard skills are not important. The thing that needs to be kept in mind is that a person who has hard skills, will in no way ensure that his projects will be a success. On the other hand, a person with great soft skills will almost always end up with a successful project (Artt, 2001).\n\nA questionnaire survey on relative importance of project manager skills for three sectors had conducted by El-Sabaa (1999). The result showed that soft (human) skill with a percentile score of 85.3% correspond the most essential project manager skill compared with hard (technical) skill which scores 50.46% stand for the least essential project manager skill.\n\nBut the survey was conducted in Egypt and only based on three sectors which are information system, electricity and agricultural. Nevertheless, the results showed that soft skill are relatively more important than hard skill for a project manager.\n\nAre Malaysian construction project managers also purport that soft skill is more important than hard skill in their project management practice? Or hard skill is more essential than soft skill? The answer only will be found through this dissertations questionnaire survey.\n\n4.2 DEVELOPING PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS\n\nProject management skills do not retributory happens by chance but is systematically certain through formal and informal methods (Thamhain, 1991). People are not born(p) with the skills needed. So do the project managers who need to develop the skills especially soft skills that needed to manage his project effectively. But most of soft skills are seldom taught beforehand.\n\nIn fact, within most organizations, including those currently practicing project management, a comprehensive soft skill set for project managers is seldom taught at all. Pinto (1994) argued that most of the skills larn by project managers develop after they have been put in charge of a project. In order to develop the skills necessary to be an effective project manager, Gido (1999) pointed out the following ways: \n\nWork on as many projects as the project manager can. all(prenominal) project presents a breeding fortune. Its helpful if the projects are not all the same. For example, if the project manager is a civil engineer and just worked on a school project. Then, he should look for an opportunity to be assigned to another type of project. Also, project manager should look for different assignment on each project. \n\nThe purpose of vary projects and assignments are exposed himself to as many other project managers, clients and other experienced project people as possible. Each experience presents an opportunity to gather up from other people.\n\nThe project manager could ask someone who has observed anything he did and pass along feedback or comment from that person. This could help him to mend any weakness in his action.\n\n4.2.3 Conduct a Self-evaluation and Learn From Own Mistakes\n\nIf the project manager completed a project task but overrun the budget or were empennage schedule, for example, ask himself what happened, what he could have done differently, and what he will do differently the contiguous time.\n\nSubscribe to jour nals, or look up articles related to the skills that project manager want to develop. in that location are plenty of articles on improving his skills. Also can ask other people if they know of any good books or articles on a specific topic; their endorsement may save the time searching for good materials.\n\nFor example, memberships in the Project Management Institute (PMI) will provide opportunities for project managers to participate in meetings and conferences with other people involved in project management.\n\n4.2.6 Participate in Training Programs\n\nThere are plenty of seminars, workshops, video and audiotapes, and self-study materials on all of the skills needed. There are even courses and seminars on the topic of project management. When participating in seminars, look for opportunities to learn from three sources: the instructors, the materials, and other participants.\n\n4.2.7 Interview the Project Manager Who Has the Relevant Skills \n\nIf the project manager wants to d evelop leadership skills, for example, seek out project managers who he think are effective leaders. Ask them how they substantial their skills and what suggestions they have. \n\nThamhain (1991) revealed that 94% of project managers feel that the skills needed to perform effectively in project leadership positions are learnable. He had found that 66% skills developments are derived from experiential learning while 20% comes from more specific work-related methods such as observations, formal on the job training, upper management learn and job rotation.\n\nBesides that, 8% skills can be demonstrable by reading professional literature, such as books, magazines, journals and research papers, as well as audio and video tapes on related subjects. 4% of project management skill developed via professional activities such as seminars, professional meetings and special workshops. While 2% of managerial skill development consists of formal schooling. \n\nThe findings of Thamhain are 10 years past and just as a basis for comparing the authority of various methods for developing project management skills. The real consequence of his findings is that skills can be developed. In fact, project managers point to the awful wealth of sources available for building and developing the skills needed to perform effectively in instantlys demanding project purlieu. \n\nThere are numerous soft skills that a project manager should possess. Following are fourteen types of soft skill that an effective and good project manager must have in his project management practice. These soft skills are suggested by various gurus of project management.\n\nThe effective project manager has a commitment to the training and development of people working on the project. He uses project as an opportunity to add value to each persons experience base so that the project team members are more knowledgeable \n\nand competent at the end of the project than when they started it. He also should e stablish an environment where people can learn from the tasks they perform and the situations they experienced or observed (Gido, 1999).\n\nProject manager needs to be able to handle the stress that can arise from work situations. accent is likely to be high when a project is in jeopardy of not meeting its objective because of a cost overrun, a schedule delay, or changes in scope requested by the client. Project activities can get both stress and intense at times (Gido, 1999).\n\nTo handle stress and break the tension, Gido suggested that project manager needs to have a good sense of humor. Also, project manager can improve his ability to handle stress by keeping physically fit through regular exercise and good nutrition, or organize stress relief activities for the project team such as a softball game, golf outing or hiking trip.\n\nProject manager is the spokesperson for the project and he spends the majority of his time communicating. Project manager holds meetings; report (ora lly as well as in writing) to the team, client, or superior management; listen to problems and solve problems. His success depends greatly on his ability to communicate. In addition, people who are more trained at communication are more successful (Taylor, 1998).\n\n involution is inherent in project as a result of the many decisions that must be make and the diversity of project team members. \n\nBesides has a deep understanding and honed skills in resolving conflicts, project manager must be able to manage the conflicts. Managed conflict on a project can lead to innovative time and cost-salving solutions to problems. But the most difficult skill is ferreting out the world of conflict as people are generally loth to bring it to the upper managements attention (Webster, 2000).\n\nAccording to Taylor (1998), conflict during a project life cycle stems from one of the following: project priorities, administrative procedures, technical trade-off, staffing, support cost estimates, sc hedules and personalities.\n\nProject environment always surrounded with uncertainty and unexpected incidents. As stated by Gido (1999), even with the best set plans, projects are subject to unexpected events that can cause contiguous turmoil. So, an effective project manager must be the person who is able to cope with ever changing situations or conditions. He needs to remain composed and make sure that scare and frustration do not beset the project team, the client or the organizations upper management. He must not be timidity; in reverse he must remain suave when unexpected events emerged. \n\nKlien R.L. (1992) stated that decision-making skills are absolutely essential for project manager. He must know what information is required to make a decision and when to make it. He must also be able to collapse the force of his decision. sober decision-making cannot be made unless the primary objectives and goals that are to be accomplished are known and understood. \n\nDecisio n also must be made in a timely manner to prevent delays in work that may impact the cost or schedule of the project.\n\nOberlender (1993) expressed that project manager should avoid crisis decisions, procrastination and disinclination and should encourage decision-making in team members. It is the responsibility of project manager to ensure that appropriate decisions are made by the discipline people, at the right time and based on correct information.\n\nThus, the project manager must ensure that the decision-making process is adequately documented, to permit timely review and filed for future reference in the event of changes or claims (Webster, 2000). \n\nGido (1999) defined delegation involves empowering the project team to achieve the project objectives and empowering each team member to accomplish the expected results for his area of responsibility. It also includes giving team member the authority to make decisions and take actions to achieve the expected results.\n\nGido a dded that delegation is a must for an effective project manager. It is part of his responsibility for organizing the project. He is still in the long run responsible for achieving the project results. Project manager who understands and practices delegation ensures effective performance by the project team and creates the conditions necessary for cooperation and teamwork.\n\nTo be delegated efficiency, it requires effective communication skills as project manager needs to express what he intends his team members to accomplish in proper way to avoid them misapprehend his thoughts. \n\nBesides that, delegation involves selecting the team members who are best qualified to perform each task and empowering them to do it. So, the project manager needs to know the capabilities, message and limitations of each member in the project team (Gido, 1999).\n\nIn gaining the resources so necessary for successful project development and managing the flabby relationship between the project team and the organizations functional departments, political reason and effective influence simulated military operation can be a project managers best tools. So, he must understand the nature of organizational political science. To simply dismiss politics as the province of the nauseous or amoral is naive and most likely damaging to the chances of the project team successfully implementing the project. Project manager must learn to recognize and develop the necessary connections and channels of influence that can be so important for project success (Pinto, 1994).\n\nGood interpersonal skills are essential for a project manager. much(prenominal) skills depend on good oral and written communication skills. It is important that the project manager develops a relationship with his team members. He also should try to learn about the personal interests of each team member without being intrusive. This requires the project manager making the time to have an informal conversation with eac h person on the project team, or look for areas of common interest with each individual (Gido, 1999).\n\nThe reason that project manager should acquire good interpersonal skills is to try to influence the idea and actions of others as throughout the project, he will have to bring off or persuade with various project people. \n\nAlso, good interpersonal skills enable project manager to deal with disagreement or divisiveness among team members.\n\nMaylor (1999) defined leadership involves the influencing of others through the personality or actions of the individual. The definition is therefore people-related. While Reiss (1995) stated that leadership can be defined by the need for a leader to define and achieve tasks (task needs); build up and co-ordinate a team (team needs); develop and satisfy the individual members (individual needs).\n\nIt could be said that leadership is getting things done through others; the project manager achieves results through the project team. Project leadership involves inspiring the people assigned to the project to work as a team to successfully implement the plan and achieve the project objectives. Project manager needs to create for the team a vision of the results and benefits of the project, so that team members will be more incite to work as a team to complete the project successfully (Gido, 1999).\n\nTaylor (1998) expressed that there are two leadership extremes that are authoritarian or autocratic, which is more concerned with the tasks, and representative or egalitarian, which is oriented towards relationships. Besides that, Gido also stated that effective project management requires a participative and consultive leadership style, in which the project manager provides focal point and coaching to the project team. \n\n merely there are different leadership style, a project manager should develop his own leadership style which could assists him effectively organizing and managing his project team in order to successf ully complete the project. \n\nThis greatly depends upon his experiences and personality, but most important is the characteristic of people he works with in the project.\n\nReiss (1995) described impeld people are amentaceous and make happy their work. They achieve satisfaction from achieving or striving towards group objectives. But Reiss stated that project manager is not the factor that can motivate people. This is because people are naturally motivated and all project managers can do is to understand their motivations and try to fit in with them.\n\nOberlender (1993) also stated that project manager must strive to identify the needs of the people who are involved in the project in order to effectively motivate them. Many time an sensory faculty of a persons interests and science of their needs is a positive step in understanding why they react to situations, and can lead to productive motivation. Oberlender added that good management recognizes the motivational needs of ea ch member of the team and develops methods to improve the performance of people.\n\nThus, project manager must develop an effective method of motivating team members other than the traditional methods of promotion in title or salary. This is because most project managers have no control over pay rates, so they must motivate by providing individual recognition and, most importantly, by ambitious each team member with responsibilities and a chance to grow (Oberlender, 1993).\n\nProject manager must have another soft skill, that of being an effective negotiators. He must compete with other project managers for scarce resources such as people, time, money, equipment or facilities. He also must fight to acquire what is necessary, providing why he must have the resources that he wants. \n\nSometimes the results may mean sharing resources, at other times taking them from another project (Klien, 1992).\n\nAgain, communication skill plays an important role in determining how effecti

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