Wednesday, February 27, 2013

Congestive Cardiac Failure

Literature Review

A literature review on congestive Cardiac Failure done by:
Afolabi Michael Oluwatayo CLI/2003/044
utmost year, MBChB.


Heart distress is a broad term that encompasses ninefold etiologies, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and clinical presentations. There has been and continues to be much confusion regarding the translation and classification of burden failure. The definition of heart failure has changed signally throughout the years, undoubtedly related to the laboriousies integrating many primary bedside observations (water retention, scant and concentrated urine, distended neck veins, and enlarged heart) with intellectual elaborations of the laboratory. For the practitioner, heart failure is a clinical syndrome in which structural or functional alterations of the heart lead to secondary phenomena such as exertional dyspnea and circulatory congestion. The diseased heart is the centerpiece of the syndrome. It is by chance useful to think of heart failure as a continuum that begins with structural or functional abnormalities of the heart that have fewer or no clinical manifestations.

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This is followed by an often reluctant progression, with changes such as chamber enlargement, hypertrophy, or in some cases impairment of ejection phase indices, leading eventually to the clinical manifestations that are apparent by history and physical examination. Although it is the clinical manifestations such as cardiomegaly, exertional dyspnea, and circulatory congestion that define the syndrome to the clinician, the student of heart failure knows that the disorder often has its roots in more fundamental structural and functional impairment that begins wide before the patient experiences signs and symptoms of dyspnea and circulatory congestion.
Heart failure is a clinical syndrome with multiple etiologies, heterogeneity, and great plasticity. This is why it has been difficult to clearly define. The following definitions, though imperfect, have been used...If you want to line up a full essay, order it on our website: Orderessay

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